A Free-Market Energy Blog

“Happy Earth Day”: Julian Simon’s Silver Anniversary (1995) Earth Day Letter

By -- April 22, 2009

[Ed Note: This letter is available on the Internet and is reproduced here with permission of the Julian Simon family.]

“So how about it, Al [Gore]?  Will you accept the offer?  And how about your boss Bill Clinton, who supports your environmental initiatives?  Can you bring him in for a piece of the action?”


– by Julian L. Simon

April 22 [1995] marks the 25th anniversary of Earth Day.  Now as then its message is spiritually uplifting.  But all reasonable persons who look at the statistical evidence now available must agree that Earth Day’s scientific premises are entirely wrong.

During the first great Earth Week in 1970 there was panic.  The public’s outlook for the planet was unrelievedly gloomy.  The doomsaying environmentalists–of whom the dominant figure was Paul Ehrlich–raised the alarm: The oceans and the Great Lakes were dying; impending great famines would be seen on television starting in 1975; the death rate would quickly increase due to pollution; and rising prices of increasingly-scarce raw materials would lead to a reversal in the past centuries’ progress in the standard of living.

The media trumpeted the bad news in headlines and front-page stories.  Professor Ehrlich was on the Johnny Carson show for an unprecedented full hour–twice.  Classes were given by television to tens of thousands of university students.

It is hard for those who did not experience it to imagine the national excitement then.  Even those who never read a newspaper joined in efforts to clean up streams, and the most unrepentant slobs refrained from littering for a few weeks.  Population growth was the great bugaboo.

Every ill was the result of too many people in the U. S. and abroad.  The remedy doomsayers urged was government-coerced birth control, abroad and even at home.

On the evening before Earth Day I spoke on a panel at the jam-packed auditorium at the University of Illinois.  The organizers had invited me for “balance,” to show that all points of view would be heard. I spoke then exactly the same ideas that I write today; some of the very words are the same.

Of the 2,000 persons in attendance, probably fewer than a dozen concluded that anything I said made sense.  A panelist denounced me as a religious nut, attributing to me weird beliefs such as that murder was the equivalent of celibacy.  My ten-minute talk so enraged people that it led to a physical brawl with another professor.

Every statement I made in 1970 about the trends in resource scarcity and environmental cleanliness turned out to be correct. Every prediction has been validated by events.  Yet the environmental organizations and the Clinton administration–especially Vice President Al Gore, the State Department, and the CIA –still take as doctrine exactly the same ideas expressed by the doomsayers in 1970, despite their being discredited by recent history.  And the press overwhelmingly endorses that viewpoint.

Here are the facts: On average, people throughout the world have been living longer and eating better than ever before.  Fewer people die of famine nowadays than in earlier centuries.  The real prices of food and of every other raw material are lower now than in earlier decades and centuries, indicating a trend of increased natural-resource availability rather than increased scarcity.  The major air and water pollutions in the advanced countries have been lessening rather than worsening.

In short, every single measure of material and environmental welfare in the United States has improved rather than deteriorated. This is also true of the world taken as a whole.  All the long-run trends point in exactly the opposite direction from the projections of the doomsayers.  There have been, and always will be, temporary and local exceptions to these broad trends.  But astonishing as it may seem, there are no data showing that conditions are deteriorating.

Rather, all indicators show that the quality of human life has been getting better.  As a result of this evidence of improvement rather than degradation, in the past few years there has been a major shift in scientific opinion away from the views the doomsayers espouse. There now are dozens of books in print and hundreds of articles in the technical and popular literature reporting these facts.

Responding to the accumulating literature that shows no negative correlation between population growth and economic development, in 1986 the National Academy of Sciences published a report on population growth and economic development prepared by a prestigious scholarly group. It reversed almost completely the frightening conclusions of the previous 1971 NAS report. The group found no quantitative statistical evidence of population growth hindering economic progress, though they hedged their qualitative judgment a bit. The report found benefits of additional people as well as costs. Even the World Bank, the greatest institutional worrier about population growth, reported in 1984 that the world’s natural resource situation provides no reason to limit population growth.

A bet between Paul Ehrlich and me epitomizes the matter.  In 1980, the year after the tenth Earth Day, Ehrlich and two associates wagered with me about future prices of raw materials.  We would assess the trend in $1000 worth of copper, chrome, nickel, tin, and tungsten for ten years.  I would win if resources grew more abundant, and they would win if resources became scarcer.  At settling time in 1990, the year after the twentieth Earth Week, they sent me a check for $576.07. 

A single bet proves little, of course. Hence I have offered to repeat the wager, and I have broadened it as follows: I’ll bet a week’s or a month’s pay that just about any trend pertaining to material human welfare will improve rather than get worse.  You pick the trend–perhaps life expectancy, a price of a natural resource, some measure of air or water pollution, or the number of telephones per person– and you choose the area of the world and the future year the comparison is to be made.  If I win, my winnings go to non-profit research.

I have not been able to close another deal with a prominent academic doomsayer.  They all continue to warn of impending deterioration, but they refuse to follow Professor Ehrlich in putting their money where their mouths are.  Therefore, let’s try the chief “official” doomsayer, Vice President Al Gore.  He wrote a best-selling book, Earth in the Balance, that warns about the supposed environmental and resource “crisis.”  In my judgment, the book is as ignorant and wrongheaded a collection of cliches as anything ever published on the subject.

So how about it, Al?  Will you accept the offer?  And how about your boss Bill Clinton, who supports your environmental initiatives?  Can you bring him in for a piece of the action?

It is not pleasant to talk rudely like this.  But a challenge wager is the last refuge of the frustrated.  And it is very frustrating that after 25 years of the anti-pessimists being proven entirely right, and the doomsayers being proven entirely wrong, their credibility and influence waxes ever greater.

That’s the bad news.  The good news is that there is every scientific reason to be joyful about the trends in the condition of the Earth, and hopeful for humanity’s future, even if we are falsely told the outlook is grim.  So Happy Earth Day.


  1. E.M.Smith  

    Ah, The Club of Rome and the “Limits to Growth” by Meadows et. al.

    I once had an upper division Economics class at University titled “The Economics of Ecology”. The first few weeks was study of “Limits to Growth” as we all got spun up on impending DOOM! Then, and only then, the professor handed out the reading list for part 2, the critiques of Limits… By 2 weeks later we were all shell shocked at how we’d been duped by Limits.

    It was incredibly effective. We all felt, rightly, that we had been way too gullible. (BTW, per “Limits to Growth”, by now we have run out of almost every resource on the planet. Natural gas ended in about 1980 IIRC. The truth is that we presently have a significant market glut of natural gas…)

    But nothing sells like a horror story. So we are stuck with it, due to the nature of human beings. Sadly, I have no counter, no solution. Since it is, IMHO, based in the human love of a scare and too much sloth to find the truth; the tendency will persist.

    How do you overcome sloth to sell “boring nothing to see here”?

    Perhaps outrage at being duped is the lever; but I don’t know how to do that on a scale larger than one Econ class…


  2. rbradley  

    Very interesting comment.

    I want to write a post on why the easy answer is the wrong answer when it comes to both mineral supplies (fixity/depletion is the easy view) and climate sensitivity to GHG forcing (fixed relative humidity to create strong positive feedback effects is the easy answer).


  3. Julian Simon is still right « Green Grift  

    […] No Comments  Julian Simon’s Earth Day speech on April 22, 1995 still resonates: Here are the facts: On average, people throughout the world have been living longer and eating better than ever […]


  4. Markus Stocker  

    […] “The real prices of food and of every other raw material are lower now than in earlier decades and centuries, indicating a trend of increased natural-resource availability rather than increased scarcity.”

    That’s one interpretation. Another might be, we have externalized most of the costs.


  5. China Goes ‘Green’ – Collecting the Pot at the Climate Policy Poker Table — MasterResource  

    […] renewables will account for 5% or less of electricity generation in China, less than the US. If the Julian Simon thesis of increasing sustainability of hydrocarbon energy use continues to prove valid, then China’s […]


Leave a Reply