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Health Effects of Windpower on Residences: Canadian Debate Update

Industrial wind turbines in human habitats are becoming increasingly controversial and subject to environmental laws and restrictions. To this end, a long, urgent letter was sent to the Attorney Generals of Canada, the Premiers, and to the Prime Minister of Canada with copies to every Parliamentarian in the country as well as the Senate.

The senseless and wasteful proliferation of industrial wind factories across North America impacts the Canadian and U.S. economy, the environment, the health of people including the disabled, the elderly, and children, who depend on the legal system for protection and redress. We have the opportunity to learn from the errors of Europe, and stop the carnage now.

Industrial wind turbines are not green. They do not produce electricity, less than half of one percent internationally, despite massive, thoughtless, energy sprawl. They harm humans, wildlife, and drive the economy into disarray. Witness the plight of Greece, Spain, Italy and many others.

With over 600 anti-wind groups in North American and Europe, and with 2,800 worldwide, the imperative nature for a moratorium call is clear and irrepressible.

An excerpt from the full letter concerning health issues of residents near wind turbines follows.

——————————– 

Authorities … are granting approvals and/or consent to industrial wind energy developers to establish industrial wind energy facilities in close proximity to residences. This is occurring in spite of the evidence that some residents will suffer injury to health and can be harmed as a result….

[E]vidence and expert testimony under oath provided during an Environmental Review Tribunal (“ERT”) in Ontario, Canada (2011) confirmed wind turbines can harm human health. The Decision (July 18, 2011) states:

This case has successfully shown that the debate should not be simplified to one about whether wind turbines can cause harm to humans. The evidence presented to the Tribunal demonstrates that they can, if facilities are placed too close to residents. The debate has now evolved to one of degree. [1]

During the Ontario, Canada ERT hearings: [2]

· Expert witnesses for both the Respondents (Ministry of Environment, Suncor Energy Services Inc.) and the Appellants provided evidence and/or testimony which acknowledged wind turbines in Ontario “will” cause annoyance, which is expected to result in stress related health impacts in some individuals.

· A witness testifying for Suncor, the wind energy developer stated: “What is clear is that some people living near wind turbines experience annoyance due to wind turbines. Swishing, whistling, resounding and pulsating/throbbing were the sound characteristics that were most highly correlated with annoyance by wind turbine noise among respondents who noticed the noise outside their dwellings. Some people are also disturbed in their sleep by wind turbines.” [3]

· A witness testifying for the Suncor, the wind energy developer provided evidence that wind turbine induced annoyance and sleep disturbance occur at sound pressure levels above and below 40 dBA. [4]

· Expert witnesses for both the Respondents and the Appellants provided evidence and/or testimony which acknowledged annoyance, stress and sleep disturbance to be adverse health effects.

· A witness testifying for Suncor, the wind energy developer stated that “annoyance is a health effect.” [5]

· Expert witnesses for both the Respondents and the Appellants provided evidence and/or testimony which acknowledged there will be some people who will evaluate themselves as annoyed or disturbed by wind turbine noise.

· In reference to people who subjectively evaluated themselves as disturbed by noise a witness testifying Suncor, for the wind energy developer provided evidence which stated, “Regardless of whether the perceived impacts by affected individuals are physiological or psychological in nature, they are a serious matter and are considered as adverse health effects.” [6] , [7] Under oath these statements were reaffirmed during testimony. [8]

· A witness testifying for Suncor, the wind energy developer provided evidence suggesting some individuals may require clinical treatment, stating “…health effects from annoyance can be mitigated though behavioral and cognitive behavioral interventions.” [9]

Furthermore the Ministry of Environment (Ontario, Canada) commissioned and released a report which states:

The audible sound from wind turbines, at the levels experienced at typical receptor distances in Ontario, is nonetheless expected to result in a nontrivial percentage of persons being highly annoyed. As with sounds from many sources, research has shown that annoyance associated with sound from wind turbines can be expected to contribute to stress related health impacts in some persons. [10]

The report went on to say:

Stress symptoms associated with noise annoyance, and in particular low frequency annoyance, include sleep interference, headaches, poor concentration, mood swings… [11]

A 2009 American Wind Energy Association and Canadian Wind Energy Wind Energy sponsored panel review, Colby et al (2009) acknowledges wind turbine sound may cause annoyance which may result in sleep disturbance and stress. The report attributes reported wind turbine symptoms (sleep disturbance, headache, tinnitus, ear pressure, dizziness, vertigo, nausea, visual blurring, tachycardia, irritability, problems with concentration and memory, and panic attack episodes associated with sensations of internal pulsation or quivering when awake or asleep) to be the “well-known stress effects of exposure to noise.” [12]

Expert witnesses drawn from the international community including Canada, UK, New Zealand, Australia and the U.S. confirmed the symptoms acknowledged in Colby et al (2009). For example, an expert witness testifying for the wind energy developer agreed with the above symptoms and provided evidence that he was “…happy to accept these symptoms, as they have been known to me for many years as the symptoms of extreme psychological stress from environmental noise, particularly low frequency noise. ” [13]. The expert noted the above symptoms are “…effects of annoyance by noise—a stress effect.” [14]

The same expert witness also testified that some people will be annoyed by the sound of wind turbines at sound pressure levels permitted in Ontario wind turbine projects. (emphasis added) [15]

In reference to 2009 American Wind Energy Association and Canadian Wind Energy Wind Energy panel review, the President of the Canadian Wind Energy Association stated: “The study does acknowledge that wind turbines can be annoying, the sound of wind turbines can be annoying for some individuals and that may cause them to feel some stress etcetera.” [16]

During these ERT hearings, expert witnesses for both the Respondents and the Appellants provided evidence and/or testimony, including evidence from peer-reviewed published journals, [17] which acknowledged wind turbine sound is perceived to be more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable sound pressure levels.

An international post–conference 2011 report, which included presentations from Canada and the U.S. states:

The main effect of daytime wind turbine noise is annoyance. The night time effect is sleep disturbance. These may lead to stress related illness in some people. Work is required in understanding why low levels of wind turbine noise may produce affects which are greater than might be expected from their levels.” [18]

During these Ontario, Canada ERT hearings witnesses for both the Respondents and/or the Appellants provided evidence and/or testimony which indicate plausible causes of wind turbine health effects include: amplitude modulation and/or audible low frequency sound and/ infrasound and/or tonality and/or lack of night time abatement and/or shadow flicker and/or visual impact and/or economic impacts. [19] ,[20] ,[21], [22], [23], [24]

During 2011 – 2012, a number of relevant articles from the international community were published in peer reviewed journals. [25] , [26] , [27] , [28] , [29] , [30] , [31] , [32] , [33] , [34] , [35] , [36] , [37] , [38] , [39] , [40]

Peer reviewed articles document some individuals living in the environs of wind turbines report reduced quality of life. [41] , [42]

Shepherd et al note:

… residents living within 2 km of a turbine installation reporting lower overall quality of life, physical quality of life, and environmental quality of life. Those exposed to turbine noise also reported significantly lower sleep quality … [43]

Peer reviewed findings that wind turbines in close proximity can lower quality of life of individuals is supported by a Canadian Wind Energy Association media release. The October 14, 2011, media release acknowledges wind turbines in the vicinity can cause annoyance for some individuals. The media release acknowledges annoyance can have “a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life”. The media release further advises affected individuals that “it is important” they obtain the services of medical professionals (i.e. consult their doctor). [44]

An Ontario, Canada 2011 ERT Decision states:

The Tribunal has found above that “serious harm to human health” includes both direct impacts (e.g., a passer-by being injured by a falling turbine blade or a person losing hearing) or indirect impacts (e.g., a person being exposed to noise and then exhibiting stress and developing other related symptoms). This approach is consistent with both the WHO definition of health and Canadian jurisprudence on the topic. [45]

The Ontario, Canada ERT witnesses for both the Respondents and the Appellants provided evidence and/or testimony which acknowledge the reported wind turbine symptoms can be expected to be created via indirect pathways. [46], [47] , [48]

The following peer reviewed noise effects reaction scheme which illustrates the “direct” and “indirect” pathways was submitted into evidence during an ERT hearing. [49]

An Ontario, Canada ERT witness and lead author of the Chief Medical Officer of Health of Ontario report “The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines[50] testified she was familiar with, and agreed in principle with, the noise effects reaction scheme. [51] The witness explicitly acknowledged under oath that CMOH (2010) looked only at direct links to human health. [52] [emphasis added]

Based in part on the shortcomings of CMOH (2010), the ERT Decision expressed concern “…about the Director’s apparent lack of consideration of indirect health effects and the need for further work on the MOE’s practice of precaution…” [53]

Horner et al (2012) note:

Failure to carefully evaluate potential indirect causal pathways and the psychological harm of IWT exposure represent errors of omission. [54]

Internal Ontario, Canada Ministry of Environment correspondence obtained through a Freedom of Information request; describe low frequency noise from wind turbine projects in Ontario resulting in annoyance, uninhabitable living conditions, “sleep deprivation” and in some cases individuals abandoning their homes. [55] Some individuals in Ontario reporting adverse health effects have reached financial agreements with the wind energy developer. [56]

Annoyance is acknowledged to be an adverse health effect. Annoyance by noise is acknowledged to be an adverse health effect [57], [58], [59], [60] and chronic severe noise annoyance must be classified as a serious health risk. [61]

An Ontario, Canada ERT witness agreed “annoyance is a health effect.” [62] In reference to people who subjectively evaluated themselves as disturbed by noise the witness provided evidence which stated “Regardless of whether the perceived impacts by affected individuals are physiological or psychological in nature, they are a serious matter and are considered as adverse health effects.” [63] , [64] These statements were reaffirmed under oath during testimony. [65]

IWT amplitude modulation [66], [67] and/or low frequency noise [68], [69] are plausible causes of adverse effects. Currently most jurisdictions do not have regulations to protect individuals from the effects of wind turbine amplitude modulation and/or low frequency noise.

A consultant for the MOE states:

Sound emissions from operating wind farms frequently give rise to noise complaints. Most compliance-based noise audits measure hourly “A”-weighted Leq, thereby removing the low-frequency contents of the wind turbine sound. The metric is also insensitive to amplitude modulation and is unsatisfactory when sensitive receptor (sic) are annoyed by the low frequency sound and amplitude modulation. [70]

 


[1] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122. Retrieved from http://www.ert.gov.on.ca/english/decisions/index.htm

[2] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122. Retrieved from http://www.ert.gov.on.ca/english/decisions/index.htm

[3] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Witness Statement of Dr. Christopher Ollson, January 17, 2011

[4] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Witness Statement of Dr. Christopher Ollson, January 17, 2011

[5] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. C. Ollson, Mar, 22, 2011

[6] Jacques Whitford Stantec Limited, Byran Wind Project Environmental Review Report, Prepared for SkyPower Corp., August 25, 2009, Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122 Exhibit 74 p. 7-68

[7] Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ostrander Point Wind Energy Design and Operations Report, Prepared for:

Gilead Power Corporation, September 2010, Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122 Exhibit 75 p. 5.18

[8] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. C. Ollson, Mar, 22, 2011

[9] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Witness Statement of Dr. Christopher Ollson, January 17, 2011

[10] Howe Gastmeier Chapnik Limited. (2010, December). Low frequency noise and infrasound associated with wind turbine generator systems: A literature review, Rfp No. Oss-078696). Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Ontario Ministry of Environment

[11] Howe Gastmeier Chapnik Limited. (2010, December 10). Low frequency noise and infrasound associated with wind turbine generator systems: A literature review (Rfp No. Oss-078696). Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Ministry of the Environment.

[12] Colby, W. D., Dobie, R., Leventhall, G., Lipscomb, D. M., McCunney, R. J., Seilo, M. T., & Søndergaard, B. (2009, December). Wind turbine sound and health effects: An expert panel review. Washington, DC: American Wind Energy Association and Canadian Wind Energy Association. [p. 4-3, 4-9, 4-10, 5-3] Ontario Ministry of Environment Disclosure Document # 23 – Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment (10-121 and 10-122)

[13] Dr. Leventhall, (2009), “Wind Turbine Syndrome, an Appraisal,” Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment (10-121 and 10-122) Exhibit 55 submitted by Suncor Energy Services Inc.

[14] Dr. Leventhall, (2009), “Wind Turbine Syndrome, an Appraisal,” Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment (10-121 and 10-122) Exhibit 55 submitted by Suncor Energy Services Inc.

[15] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. G. Leventhall, Mar, 11, 2011

[16] Hornung, R. (2010, March 4). Interview on Business News Network (Video). Retrieved from http://watch.bnn.ca/clip272347

[17] Pedersen, E., Bakker, R., Bouma, J., & van den Berg, F. (2009), Response to noise from modern wind farms in the Netherlands, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126, 634-643.

[18] Wind Turbine Noise. (April 12–14, 2011). Post conference report. Retrieved from http://www.confweb.org/wtn2011/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70:report&catid=35:information

[19] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. G. Rachamin, Mar, 4, 2011

[20] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Dr. Colby’s presentation to Nova Scotia Department of Energy on March 4, 2010, Exhibit 90, p.9 p. 18, p. 29

[21] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. K. Mundt, Mar, 22, 2011

[22] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. C. Ollson, Mar, 22, 2011

[23] Howe Gastmeier Chapnik Limited. (2010, December). Low frequency noise and infrasound associated with wind turbine generator systems: A literature review Rfp No. Oss-078696). Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Ontario Ministry of Environment

[24] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Witness Statement of Dr. R. McMurtry, January 16, 2011

[25] McMurtry, RY, Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis, Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 316, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611415075, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/316

[26] Salt, AN, and Kaltenbach, JA, (2011) Infrasound From Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans, Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 296, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412555, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/296

[27] Shain, M, (2011), Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada, Bulletin of Science Technology & Society, 2011 31: 256, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412552, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/346

[28] Bronzaft, AL, (2011) The Noise From Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children’s Well-Being, Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 256,

DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412548, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/291

[29] Harrison, JP, (2011), Wind Turbine Noise, Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 256, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412549, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/256

[30] Phillips, CV, (2011), Properly Interpreting the Epidemiologic Evidence About the Health Effects of Industrial Wind Turbines on Nearby Residents, Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 303, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412554, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/303

[31] Thorne, B, (2011), The Problems With ”Noise Numbers” for Wind Farm Noise Assessment,

Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 262, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412557,

http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/262

[32] Daniel Shepherd, David McBride, David Welch, Kim N. Dirks, Erin M. Hill, Evaluating the impact of wind turbine noise on health related quality of life by Noise & Health, September-October 2011, 13:54,333-9, DOI: 10.4103/1463-1741.85502.

[33] Daniel Shepherd and Rex Billington, Mitigating the Acoustic Impacts of Modern Technologies: Acoustic, Health, and Psychosocial Factors Informing Wind Farm Placement Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 389, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611417841 http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/5/389

[34] Alec N. Salt and James A. Kaltenbach. Infrasound From Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans Infrasound

Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 296, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412555,

http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/296

[35] Alec N. Salt and T.E. Hullar. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines.

Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Hearing Research 2010 Sep 1; 268(1-2):12-21. Epub 2010 Jun 16

[36] Robert W. Rand, Stephen E. Ambrose, and Carmen M. E. Krogh, Occupational Health and Industrial Wind Turbines: A Case Study Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 359DOI: 10.1177/0270467611417849 http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/5/359

[37] Henrik Møller and Christian Sejer Pedersen, Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines Section of Acoustics, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7-B5, DK-9220 Aalborg Ø, Denmark, Acoustical Society of America [DOI: 10.1121/1.3543957] J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129 (6), June 2011 PACS number(s): 43.50.Rq, 43.28.Hr, 43.50.Cb, 43.50.Sr [ADP] Pages: 3727–3744

[38] Brett Horner, Roy D. Jeffery and Carmen M. E. Krogh, Literature Reviews on Wind Turbines and Health : Are They Enough? Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 399. DOI: 10.1177/0270467611421849

http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/5/399

[39] Magda Havas and David Colling, Wind Turbines Make Waves: Why Some Residents Near Wind Turbines Become Ill Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 414. DOI: 0.1177/0270467611417852

http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/5/369

[40] Christopher D Hanning and Alun Evans, Wind turbine noise, British Medical Journal, BM J2 012;344d oi: 10.1136/ bmj.e1527 (8 March 2012) Retrieved from http://www.windvigilance.com/about-adverse-health-effects/wind-turbine-noise-sleep-and-health-by-dr-hanning

[41] Krogh, CME, (2011), Industrial Wind Turbine Development and Loss of Social Justice? Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 321, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412550, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/321

[42] Krogh, CME, Gillis, L, Kouwen, N, and Aramini, J, (2011), WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring, Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 334, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412551, http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/334

[43] Shepherd D, McBride D, Welch D, Dirks KN, Hill EM. Evaluating the impact of wind turbine noise on health-related quality of life. Noise Health 2011;13:333-9

[44] The Canadian Wind Energy Association, October 14, 2011, The Canadian Wind Energy Association responds to October 14, 2011 statement by Wind Concerns Ontario, Retrieved from http://www.canwea.ca/media/release/release_e.php?newsId=133

[45] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122. p. 190 Retrieved from http://www.ert.gov.on.ca/english/decisions/index.htm

[46] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Supplementary Witness Statement of William David Colby, MSc, MD, FRCP(C), Exhibit 52,

[47] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Witness Statement of Dr. R. McMurtry, January 16, 2011

[48] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122. Transcript of Mr. B. Howe, March 30, 2011

[49] World Health Organization, Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, 2009 Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/43316/E92845.pdf

[50] Chief Medical Officer of Health. (2010, May). Report: The potential health impact of wind turbines. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/public/publications/ministry_reports/wind_turbine/wind_turbine.pdf

[51] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122. Transcript of Dr. G. Rachamin, Mar, 4, 2011

[52] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122. Transcript of Dr. G. Rachamin, Mar, 4, 2011

[53] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Decision Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122. Retrieved from http://www.ert.gov.on.ca/english/decisions/index.htm

[54] Brett Horner, Roy D. Jeffery and Carmen M. E. Krogh, Literature Reviews on Wind Turbines and Health : Are They Enough? Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 399. DOI: 10.1177/0270467611421849

http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/5/399

[55] Brett Horner, Roy D. Jeffery and Carmen M. E. Krogh, Literature Reviews on Wind Turbines and Health : Are They Enough? Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 399. DOI: 10.1177/0270467611421849

http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/5/399

[56] Krogh, CME, (2011), Industrial Wind Turbine Development and Loss of Social Justice? Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 2011 31: 321, DOI: 10.1177/0270467611412550, Retrieved from http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/321

[57] Health Canada. (2005). Community noise annoyance. Retrieved from

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/life-vie/communityurbain-eng.php#he

[58] Suter, A. H. (1991). Noise and its effects. Washington, DC: Administrative Conference of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.nonoise.org/library/suter/suter.htm

[59] Michaud, D. S., Keith, S. E., & McMurchy, D. (2005). Noise annoyance in Canada. Noise Health, 7, 39-47.

[60] Pedersen, E., & Persson Waye, K. (2007). Wind turbine noise, annoyance and self-reported health and well being in different living environments. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64, 480-486. doi:10.1136/oem.2006.031039

[61] Maschke, C., & Niemann, A. (2007). Health effects of annoyance induced by neighbour noise. Noise Control Engineering Journal, 55, 348-356.

[62] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. C. Ollson, Mar, 22, 2011

[63] Jacques Whitford Stantec Limited, Byran Wind Project Environmental Review Report, Prepared for SkyPower Corp., August 25, 2009, Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122 Exhibit 74 p. 7-68

[64] Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ostrander Point Wind Energy Design and Operations Report, Prepared for:

Gilead Power Corporation, September 2010, Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122 Exhibit 75 p. 5.18

[65] Erickson v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Case Nos. 10-121 and 10-122, Transcript of Dr. C. Ollson, Mar, 22, 2011

[66] “Infrasound from Wind Turbines: Fact, Fiction or Deception?” by Dr. Leventhall, Exhibit 54, p. 34, para. 4

[67] Dr. Colby’s presentation to Nova Scotia Department of Energy on March 4, 2010, Exhibit 90, p. 18 and p. 29

[68] Møller, H., & Pedersen, C. S. (2011). Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129, 3727-3744.

[69] Minnesota Department of Health. (2009, May). Public health impacts of wind turbines. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/hazardous/topics/windturbines.pdf

[70] Richarz, W., Richarz, H., and Gambino, T., (2011), Correlating very low frequency sound pulse to audible wind turbine sound, Aercoustice Engineering Limited, Ontario, Canada, Rome Conference Fourth International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise Rome Italy 12-14 April 2011

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1 Sherri Lange: Health Effects of Windpower on Residences: Canadian Debate Update | JunkScience.com { 04.19.12 at 7:57 am }

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